THE POTENTIAL OF BITTER GOURD LEAVES AS ANTIBACTERIAL
Bacterial infection in water is one of the biggest threats to the quality of water for freshwater fish farming. The bacterium that most often attacks fish is Aeromonas hydrophila. These fish cause Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia (MAS), Motile Aeromonad Infection (MAI), Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Red pest, and Red-sore. This problem is compounded by antibiotic resistance that occurs in Aeromonas hydrophila. Bacterial resistance due to the antibiotic can be handled by using phytopharmako. One of the plants that can be used as fitofarmako is Momordica charantia L.
This plant has many benefits, including the antibacterial properties of Momordica charantia leaf extract. These antibacterial properties are derived from 32% alkaloids, 22% flavonoids, 1.37 mg / 100gr tannins, 1.6% terpenoids, and 5.2% saponins contained in Momordica charantia L. leaves. Antibacterial activity of compounds contained in bitter gourd leaf extracts (Momordica charantia L.) can be used as a reference in treatments development for diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila.
This study used an experimental method conducted in vitro to test antibacterial activity of the bitter gourd extract against Aeromonas hydrophila by comparing the inhibition zones formed with control. The first step in this research is the process of extracting bitter gourd leaves using maceration method with ethanol 96%, then the extract of bitter gourd leaves is tested qualitatively by phytochemical compounds to determine the presence of alkaloid compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins that are antibacterial.
Alkaloid compounds were tested with Wagner reagents and flavonoid compounds tested with alkaline reagents. Testing for terpenoid compounds using Salkowki test and testing for saponin compounds using foam test. While the tannin compounds were tested with a chloride ferry reagent. The bacterial density was 108 CFU / ml, which equalized with Mc Farland’s standard number 0.5 (1.5 x 108 CFU / ml). While making the concentration of bitter melon extract using serial dilution with 10% DMSO solvent. The dilution concentration obtained was 20 mg / ml; 10 mg / ml; 5 mg / ml; 2.5 mg / ml; 1.25 mg / ml; and 0.625 mg / ml.
The results showed the phytochemical qualitative test of bitter gourd leaves obtained the results of alkaloids (+), flavonoids (+), tannins (+), terpenoids (-), and saponins (+). These results indicate that bitter gourd extract in this study contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins, while the terpenoid test results were negative. The concentration of bitter gourd extract in P1 (20 mg / ml), P2 (10 mg / ml), and P3 (5 mg / ml) treatments obtained an average inhibition zone diameter of 13.6 mm; 12 mm; and 12.3 mm. All three treatments showed the presence of antibacterial activity included in the intermediate category. The intermediate category indicates that treatment can be more effective if the dose used is higher to obtain antibacterial activity with sensitive categories. The concentration of bitter gourd extract showed resistance in the treatment of P4 (2.5 mg / ml), P5 (1.25 mg / ml), and P6 (0.625 mg / ml), and negative control (DMSO 10%). The resistant category indicates that bacterial isolates were not clinically inhibited by the antibacterial concentration used.
The use of antibacterial in medicine must meet the principles as the use of drugs in general. Namely, diagnosis, medication, dosage and drug supplies, and on time. The use of antibacterials against bacteria whose sensitivity is insensitive can cause healing from bacterial infections as well as the risk of forming antibacterial resistance. Based on test data, it can be seen the antibacterial activity of bitter gourd extract against Aeromonas hydrophila. The minimum concentration of bitter melon extract which produces the largest inhibition zone against Aeromonas hydrophila. Among them is the P3 treatment which is 5 mg/ml produces an average inhibition zone with a diameter of 12.3 mm. This antibacterial activity is produced through the mechanism of action of all phytochemical compounds contained in bitter gourd leaves. Among them are alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins.
Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the extract of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) has antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila in the resistant to intermediate categories. The minimum concentration that produces the largest inhibitory zone is produced by a concentration of 5 mg/ml which produces an inhibitory zone with a diameter of 12.3 mm, which is an antibacterial with an intermediate category.
D A Masithoh, R Kusdarwati dan D Handijatno. Antibacterial activity of bitter gourd (Momordi cacharantia L.) leaf extract against Aeromonas hydrophila. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 236. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/236/1/012096/pdf